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Posts Tagged ‘Planning’

Virtual Machines that are misaligned

March 14, 2011 Leave a comment

For existing child VMs that are misaligned, in order to correct the partition offset, a new physical disk must be created and formatted, and the data has to be migrated from the original disk to the new one.

Important note: Both Windows 7 and Windows 2008/2008R2  create aligned partition

This problem  occurs when the partitioning  scheme used by the host OS doesn’t match the block boundaries inside the LUN.If the guest file system is not aligned, it may become necessary to read or write twice as many blocks of storage than the guest actually requested since any guest file system block actually occupies at least two partial storage blocks.

All VHD types can be formatted with the correct offset at the time of  creation by booting the child VM before installing an OS and manually setting the partition offset. . The recommended starting offset value for Windows OSs is 32768. The default starting offset value typically observed is 32256.
How to verify the Offset value:

1. Run msinfo32 on the guest VM by selecting
Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > System Information.
or type Start > Run and enter the following command : MSINFO32
2. Navigate to Components > Storage > Disks and check the value for partition starting offset.


If the misaligned virtual disk is the boot partition, follow these  steps:
1. Back up the VM system image.
2. Shut down the VM.
3. Attach the misaligned system image virtual disk to a different VM.
4. Attach a new aligned virtual disk to this VM.
5. Copy the contents of the system image (for example, C: in Windows) virtual disk to the new aligned virtual disk.
There are various tools that can be used to copy the contents from the misaligned virtual disk to the new aligned virtual disk:
− Windows xcopy
− Norton/Symantec™ Ghost: Norton/Symantec Ghost can be used to back up a full system image on the misaligned virtual disk and then be restored to a previously created, aligned virtual disk file system.
For Microsoft Hyper-V LUNs mapped to the Hyper-V parent partition using the incorrect LUN protocol type but with

aligned VHDs, create a new LUN using the correct LUN protocol type and copy the
contents (VMs and VHDs) from the misaligned LUN to this new LUN.

For Microsoft Hyper-V LUNs mapped to the Hyper-V parent partition using the   incorrect LUN protocol type but with misaligned VHDs, create a new LUN using the correct LUN protocol type and copy the contents (VMs and VHDs) from the misaligned LUN to this new LUN.!01

Next, To set up the starting offset, follow these steps:

1. Boot the child VM with the Windows Preinstall Environment boot CD.
2. Select

Start > Run and enter the following command:
diskpart
3. Type the following into the prompt:
select disk 0
4. Type the following into the prompt:
create partition primary align=32
5. Reboot the child VM with the Windows Preinstall Environment boot CD.
6. Install the operating system as normal.
Virtual disks to be used as data disks can be formatted with the correct  offset at the time of creation by using Diskpart in the VM. To align the virtual disk, follow these steps:

1. Boot the child VM with the Windows Preinstall Environment boot CD.
2. Select Start > Run and enter the following command:
diskpart
3. Determine the appropriate disk to use by typing the following into the prompt:
list disk
4. Select the correct disk by typing the following into the prompt:
select disk [#]
5. Type the following into the prompt:
create partition primary align=32
6. To exit, type the following in the prompt:
exit
7. Format the data disk as you would normally

For pass-through disks and LUNs directly mapped to the child OS, create a new LUN using the correct LUN protocol type, map the LUN to the VM, and copy the contents from the misaligned LUN to this new aligned LUN.

For info about  misaligned in Windows 2003, please have a look here : http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;929491

Windows 7 and W2008 R2 SP1 released. Important Steps to follow before you install

February 23, 2011 1 comment

 

SP1 Download link : http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=c3202ce6-4056-4059-8a1b-3a9b77cdfdda

Before you install Windows 7 SP1 , make sure that you follow these steps:

STEP 1 : Uninstalling SP1 using Programs and Features

The easiest way to uninstall SP1 is using Programs and Features.

  1. Click the Start button Picture of the Start button, click Control Panel, click Programs, and then click Programs and Features.
  2. Click View installed updates.
  3. Click Service Pack for Microsoft Windows (KB 976932), and then click Uninstall.

    If you don’t see Service Pack for Microsoft Windows (KB 976932) in the list of installed updates, your computer likely came with SP1 already installed, and you can’t uninstall the service pack. If the service pack is listed but grayed out, you can’t uninstall the service pack.

Uninstalling SP1 using the Command Prompt

  1. Click the Start button Picture of the Start button, and then, in the search box, type Command Prompt.
  2. In the list of results, right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator. Administrator permission required If you’re prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
  3. Type the following: wusa.exe /uninstall /kb:976932
  4. Press the Enter key.

Step 2: Back up your important files

Back up your files to an external hard disk, DVD or CD, USB flash drive, or network folder. For information about how to back up your files, see Back up your files (http://windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows7/Back-up-your-files) .

Step 3: Update device drivers

Update device drivers as necessary. You can do this by using Windows Update in Control Panel or by going to the device manufacturer’s website. 

Important If you are using an Intel integrated graphics device, you should be aware that there are known issues with certain versions of the Intel integrated graphics device driver and with D2D enabled applications, such as certain versions of Windows Live Mail. The versions of the Intel integrated graphics device driver that are known to be problematic are Igdkmd32.sys and Igdkmd64.sys versions 8.15.10.2104 through 8.15.10.2141. For more information about a known issue with these drivers and with Windows Live Mail, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 2505524 (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2505524) .

To check whether you are using the Intel integrated graphics device driver Igdkmd32.sys or Igdkmd64.sys versions 8.15.10.2104 through 8.15.10.2141, follow these steps: 

  1. Start DirectX Diagnostic Tool. To do this, click Start, type dxdiag in the Search programs and files box, and then press Enter.
  2. Click the Display tab.
  3. Note the driver and driver version.
  4. If you have the Intel integrated graphics driver Igdkmd32.sys or Igdkmd64.sys versions 8.15.10.2104 through 8.15.10.2141, visit the computer manufacturer’s website to see whether a newer driver is available, and then download and install that driver.

Step 4: Install Windows Update KB2454826

 Install Windows Update KB2454826 from Windows Update (http://www.update.microsoft.com/)  if it is not already installed. If you install the service pack from the Microsoft Download Center and do not install Windows Update KB245862, you could encounter a Stop error in Windows in rare cases.

Windows Update KB2454826 will automatically be installed when you install the service pack by using Windows Update. However, Windows Update KB2454826 is not automatically installed when you install the service pack from the Microsoft Download Center.

To check whether Windows Update KB2454826 is installed, click Start, type View installed updates in the Search programs and files box, and then press Enter. Notice whether Update for Microsoft Windows (KB2454826) is listed. If the update is not listed, you will have to install it from Windows Update

Step 5: Check for malware

Check your computer for malware by using antivirus software. Some antivirus software is sold together with annual subscriptions that can be renewed as needed. However, much antivirus software is also available for free. Microsoft offers Microsoft Security Essentials, free antivirus software that you can download from the Microsoft Security Essentials (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=168949)  website. You can also visit the Microsoft Consumer security software providers (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=135654)  webpage to find third-party antivirus software.

Important If your computer is infected with malware and you install Windows 7 SP1, you could encounter blue screens or a Windows Update error such as 8007f0f4 or FFFFFFFF. If malware is detected, Windows Update will be unable to install SP1.

Microsoft Hyper-V Cloud Fast Track with Dell technology

January 10, 2011 Leave a comment

Curious about Cloud ?

  • Should you use public cloud offerings from providers, build your own private cloud, or develop a hybrid of both?
  • What cloud-based services are right for you?
  • What are the best practices and proven process for implementing cloud technologies that minimize risk and maximize success?

Microsoft in partnership with Dell

Microsoft Hyper-V Cloud Fast Track is a reference architecture for building private clouds that combines Dell technology, including servers, networking and storage, with Microsoft software, technical guidance and validated configurations.

Hyper-V Cloud Fast Track solutions offer a turnkey approach to delivering scalable, preconfigured, validated infrastructure platforms for on-premises private cloud implementations. With local control over data and operations, your IT can dynamically pool, allocate, secure and manage resources for agile IaaS. Likewise, business units can deploy line-of-business applications with speed and consistency using self-provisioning and automated data center services in a virtualized environment.

Hyper-V Cloud Fast Track solutions offer:

  • Faster deployment — Rich features and support make private clouds easy to deploy.
  • Reduced risk — Validated configurations mean you can implement with confidence.
  • Dell advantage — Dell provides business-ready configurations for virtualization that are optimized for Microsoft Hyper-V. 

Dell Business-Ready Configurations for Microsoft Hyper-V Cloud Fast Track

Dell offers a range of pre-engineered, business-ready configurations that conform to Microsoft’s Hyper-V Fast Track reference architecture:



Best Windows Story contest‏ : you could win a copy of Windows 7 Ultimate

December 23, 2010 Leave a comment

Microsoft is giving away a copy of Windows 7 Ultimate to the ten (10) best Windows stories from IT Professionals. Stories can be related to how Windows 7 saved your company money, solving your application compatibility issues, deployment, management of your installations, and virtually anything else. The more compelling your story, the better chance you have to win.

OFFICIAL RULES

PLEASE NOTE:  It is your sole responsibility to review and understand your employer’s policies regarding your eligibility to participate in trade promotions.  If you are participating in violation of your employer’s policies, you may be disqualified from entering or receiving prizes.  Microsoft disclaims any and all liability or responsibility for disputes arising between an employee and their employer related to this matter, and prizes will only be awarded in compliance with the employer’s policies.

GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES: Microsoft is committed to complying with government gift and ethics rules and therefore government employees are not eligible.

This Contest is hosted in the United States, and entry information is collected on computers in the United States. This Contest will be governed by the laws of the State of Washington, and you consent to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue of the courts of the State of Washington for any disputes arising out of this Contest. If you do not agree with this provision and these Official Rules, please do not enter this Contest.

COMMON TERMS USED IN THESE RULES:

These are the official rules that govern how the Microsoft Best Windows Story contest promotion will operate (“Contest”). In these rules, “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Microsoft Corporation, the sponsor of this Contest.  “You” refers to an eligible Contest entrant. 

CONTEST DESCRIPTION: 

This is a skill-based Contest. 

The object of this Contest is to recognize your story about how implementing Windows 7 has helped your business. Stories can describe how Windows 7 saved your company money, solved for application compatibility issues, helped with deployment or management of your installations, or virtually anything else. For purposes of this Contest, each “story” you submit will be called an entry. All eligible entries received will be judged using the criteria described below to determine the winners of the prizes described below.

WHAT ARE THE START AND END DATES?

This Contest starts at 12:01 a.m. Pacific Time (PT) on December 15, 2010 and ends at 11:59 p.m. PT on January 31, 2011 (“Entry Period”).

CAN I ENTER?

You are eligible to enter this Contest if you meet the following requirements at time entry:

  • You are an IT Professional 18 years of age or older whose business has previously deployed Windows 7;  and
    • If you are 18 of age or older, but are considered a minor in your place of residence, you should ask your parent’s or legal guardian’s permission prior to submitting an entry into this Contest; and
  • You are NOT a resident of any of the following countries: Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria.
    • PLEASE NOTE: U.S. export regulations prohibit the export of goods and services to Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan and Syria. Therefore residents of these countries / regions are not eligible to participate.
  • You are NOT an employee of Microsoft Corporation or an employee of a Microsoft subsidiary; and
  • You are NOT involved in any part of the administration and execution of this Contest; and
  • You are NOT an immediate family (parent, sibling, spouse, child) or household member of a Microsoft employee, an employee of a Microsoft subsidiary, or a person involved in any part of the administration and execution of this Contest.

This Contest is void outside the geographic area described above and wherever else prohibited by law.

WHAT CONSTITUTES AN ELIGIBLE ENTRY?

 To be eligible for judging an entry must meet the following content / technical requirements:

  • Story must be no more than 2 double spaced pages with normal margins.
  • Story must be about how your business was helped by implementing Windows 7 or migrating to Windows 7 from Windows XP or Windows Vista.
  • Story must be written and submitted in English
  • Story must be submitted in .doc or .docx format to WinStory@microsoft.com no later than January 31, 2011 at midnight Pacific time.

In addition:

  • your entry must be your own original work; and
  • your entry cannot have been selected as a winner in any other contest; and
  • you must have obtained any and all consents, approvals or licenses required for you to submit your entry; and
  • your entry must not otherwise violate the rights of any other person or company by using their trademarks, music, logos, names or images without their express written consent.

Entries may NOT contain, as determined by us, in our sole and absolute discretion, any content that:

  • is sexually explicit, unnecessarily violent or derogatory of any ethnic, racial, gender, religious, professional or age group; profane or pornographic;
  • promotes alcohol, illegal drugs, tobacco, firearms/weapons (or the use of any of the foregoing) or a particular political agenda;
  • is obscene or offensive;
  • defames, misrepresents or contains disparaging remarks about other people or companies;
  • communicates messages or images inconsistent with the positive images and/or good will to which we wish to associate; and/or violates any law;

We reserve the right to reject any entry, in our sole and absolute discretion, that we determine does not meet the above criteria.

HOW WILL MY ENTRY BE POTENTIALLY USED?

Other than what is set forth below, we are not claiming any ownership rights to your entry.  However, by submitting your entry, you:

  • are granting us an irrevocable, royalty-free, worldwide right and license to: (i) use, review, assess, test and otherwise analyze your entry and all its content in connection with this Contest; and (ii) feature your entry and all content in connection with the marketing, sale, or promotion of this Contest (including but not limited to internal and external sales meetings, conference presentations, tradeshows, and screen shots of the Contest entry in press releases) in all media (now known or later developed)
  • agree to sign any necessary documentation that may be required for us and our designees to make use of the rights you granted above;
  • understand and acknowledge that the Promotion Parties may have developed or commissioned materials similar or identical to your submission and you waive any claims you may have resulting from any similarities to your entry; 
  • understand that we cannot control the incoming information you will disclose to our representatives in the course of entering, or what our representatives will remember about your entry. You also understand that we will not restrict work assignments of representatives who have had access to your entry.  By entering this Contest, you agree that use of information in our representatives’ unaided memories in the development or deployment of our products or services does not create liability for us under this agreement or copyright or trade secret law; 
  • understand that you will not receive any compensation or credit for use of your entry, other than what is described in these Official Rules

Please note that following the end of this Contest your entry may be posted on a website selected by us for viewing by visitors to that website.  We are not responsible for any unauthorized use of your entry by visitors to this website.  While we reserve these rights, we are not obligated to use your entry for any purpose, even if it has been selected as a winning entry.

If you do not want to grant us these rights to your entry, please do not enter this Contest.

HOW DO I ENTER?

To enter, send an email to WinStory@microsoft.com. Emails must include your story as an attachment and your contact information including first/last name, business, and email address.

By submitting your story, you will receive one (1) entry into the Contest.

We will only accept one (1) entry per person.

We are not responsible for entries that we do not receive for any reason, or for entries that we receive but are not decipherable for any reason.

We will automatically disqualify:

  • Any incomplete or illegible entry; and
  • Any entries that we receive from you that are in excess of the entry limit described above.

WINNER DETERMINATION AND PRIZES

On or around February 28, 2011, a panel of judges will review all eligible entries received and select ten (10) winners of the Contest Prizes described below based upon judging criteria described below.

Judging Criteria

  • 25% – Compelling story about the value Windows 7 provides to your organization
  • 25% – Ability to overcome migration or deployment challenges
  • 25% – Solutions used to overcome challenges
  • 25% – Ability to clearly document your story

The decisions of the judges are final and binding.  If we do not receive a sufficient number of entries meeting the entry requirements, we may, at our discretion, select fewer winners than described above.

In the event of a tie between any eligible entries, an additional judge will break the tie based on the judging criteria described above.  The decisions of the judges are final and binding.  If we do not receive a sufficient number of entries meeting the entry requirements, we may, at our discretion, select fewer winners than the number of Contest Prizes described below.

Contest Prizes

Ten (10) Grand Prize. A Not for Resale English version of Microsoft Windows 7 Ultimate. Approximate Retail Value (ARV) $299.99.

The total Approximate Retail Value (ARV) of all prizes: $2999.90

We will only award one (1) prize per person.

If you are a potential winner, we will notify you by sending a message to the e-mail address, the phone number, or mailing address (if any) provided at time of entry within seven (7) days following completion of judging.  If the notification that we send is returned as undeliverable, or you are otherwise unreachable for any reason, we may award to a runner-up.

If there is a dispute as to who is the potential winner, we will consider the potential winner to be the authorized account holder of the e-mail address used to enter the Contest. If you are a potential winner, we may require you to sign an Affidavit of Eligibility, Liability/Publicity Release and a W-9 tax form or W-8 BEN tax form within 10 days of notification. If you are a potential winner and you are 18 or older, but are considered a minor in your place of legal residence, we may require your parent or legal guardian to sign all required forms on your behalf.  If you do not complete the required forms as instructed and/or return the required forms within the time period listed on the winner notification message, we may disqualify you and select a runner-up.

If you are confirmed as a winner of this Contest:

  • You may not exchange your prize for cash or any other merchandise or services.  However, if for any reason an advertised prize is unavailable, we reserve the right to substitute a prize of equal or greater value; and
  • You may not designate someone else as the winner.  If you are unable or unwilling to accept your prize, we may award it to a runner up; and
  • If you accept a prize, you will be solely responsible for all applicable taxes related to accepting the prize; and
  • If you are otherwise eligible for this Contest, but are considered a minor in your place of residence, we may award the prize to your parent/legal guardian on your behalf; and
  • Unless otherwise noted, all prizes are subject to their manufacturer’s warranty and / or terms and conditions. 

WHAT OTHER CONDITIONS AM I AGREEING TO BY ENTERING?

By entering this Contest you agree:

  • To abide by these Official Rules; and
  • To release and hold harmless Microsoft and its respective parents, subsidiaries, affiliates, employees and agents from any and all liability or any injury, loss or damage of any kind arising from or in connection with this Contest, or any prize won; and
  • That Microsoft’s decisions will be final and binding on all matters related to this Contest; and
  • That, by accepting a prize, Microsoft may use of your proper name and state of residence online and in print, or in any other media, in connection with this Contest, without payment or compensation to you, except where prohibited by law.

WHAT LAWS GOVERN THE WAY THIS CONTEST IS EXECUTED AND ADMINISTRATED?

This Contest will be governed by the laws of the State of Washington, and you consent to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue of the courts of the State of Washington for any disputes arising out of this Contest.  

WHAT IF SOMETHING UNEXPECTED HAPPENS AND THE CONTEST CAN’T RUN AS PLANNED?

If someone cheats, or a virus, bug, catastrophic event, or any other unforeseen or unexpected event that cannot be reasonably anticipated or controlled, (also referred to as force majeure) affects the fairness and / or integrity of this Contest, we reserve the right to cancel, change or suspend this Contest.  This right is reserved whether the event is due to human or technical error. If a solution cannot be found to restore the integrity of the Contest, we reserve the right to select winners from among all eligible entries received before we had to cancel, change or suspend the Contest.

If you attempt to compromise the integrity or the legitimate operation of this Contest by hacking or by cheating or committing fraud in ANY way, we may seek damages from you to the fullest extent permitted by law.  Further, we may ban you from participating in any of our future Contest, so please play fairly.

HOW CAN I FIND OUT WHO WON?

To request a winners list, please send an email to WinStory@microsoft.com and we will provide you with a list of winner who received a prize worth $25.00 or more. This list will be available until March 31, 2011.

WHO IS SPONSORING THIS CONTEST?

Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052

Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 with Service Pack‏ : Solution Accelerator

November 18, 2010 Leave a comment

Exchange Server 2010 supports a variety of infrastructure topologies that enable IT departments to deploy the messaging architecture that best suits their business needs. This guide will help organizations make informed decisions about the design of fault tolerance and scalability so that their overall requirements are met.

The guide covers these key steps in the Exchange Server 2010 infrastructure design process:

·     Defining the project scope by identifying your individual business and IT requirements for a messaging infrastructure.

·     Mapping features and functionality based on the defined scope to develop the appropriate Exchange Server 2010 design.

·     Designing the infrastructure and role requirements for the proposed Exchange Server 2010 architecture.

·     Determining the sizing, fault tolerance, and physical placement of Exchange Server 2010 roles.

The IPD Guide for Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 with Service Pack 1 can help you reduce planning time and costs, and ensure a successful rollout of Exchange Server 2010-helping your organization to more quickly benefit from this flexible and reliable platform.

 Download the beta guide here.

Private Cloud Solutions : Hyper-V Cloud Deployment Guides

November 18, 2010 4 comments

Private cloud is the implementation of cloud services on resources that are dedicated to your organization, whether they exist on-premises or off-premises with the benefits of public cloud computing—including self-service, scalability, and elasticity and the additional control and customization.

Build your own private cloud and you will have a dynamic, virtualized infrastructure with advantages including:

  • Pools of compute resources
  • Automated management
  • High-availability
  • Scale-out capabilities
  • Multi-tenancy
  • Self-service provisioning

To learn more how to build your own private cloud with Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V, System Center, and the Virtual Machine Manager Self-Service Portal 2.0 using the Hyper-V Clould Deployment Guide:

Microsoft System Center Service Manager 2010 : Solution Accelerator

November 18, 2010 Leave a comment

The Infrastructure Planning and Design (IPD) Guide for Microsoft System Center Service Manager 2010 takes the IT architect through an easy-to-follow process for successfully designing the servers and components for a System Center Service Manager implementation, resulting in a design that is sized, configured, and appropriately placed to deliver the stated business benefits, while also considering the performance, capacity, and fault tolerance of the system.

The guide covers these key steps in the System Center Service Manager infrastructure design process:

  • Defining the project scope by identifying the necessary Service Manager features, the requirements of the process management packs, and the targeted population of the organization.
  • Mapping the selected features and scope to determine the required server roles.
  • Designing the fault tolerance, configuration, and placement of the management servers, portals, and supporting SQL Server databases.

The IPD Guide for Microsoft System Center Service Manager 2010 can help you reduce planning time and costs, and ensure a successful rollout of System Center Service Manager—helping your organization to more quickly benefit from this platform for automating and adapting IT Service Management best practices such as those found in Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF) and the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL).

Join the IPD Beta for Microsoft System Center Service Manager 2010.

Hyper-V Snapshots : How to disable the computer account from changing its secure channel password

November 16, 2010 Leave a comment

There is a nice post by Robert Larson that explains how to make the change.

1. Open the GPO editor and go to

2. Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\Security Options\

3. Enable the Domain Member: Disable machine account password changes option

or

1. Edit the Domain Member: Maximum machine account password age option

2. Increase the value from the default of 30 days to a new larger value (up to a maximum of 999 days)

Doing either of these options should keep you from getting the dreadful message that the secure channel is broken.

 To read the complete article go to http://blogs.technet.com/b/roblarson/archive/2009/11/10/dealing-with-vms-snapshots-and-the-dreaded-broken-security-channel.aspx

Virtualisation planning process : memory configuration maximums.

October 21, 2010 Leave a comment

Today’s  challenge for a virtualization admins it’s to provision memory requirements within the guest for unique workloads,  paying attention to the host environment.

Although today, memory is relatively cheap, it may not be the case in the future and we also need to take in consideration the host maximums, as this will impact what OS would be available for a guest virtual machine as well as the aggregated impact on the host. It is notorios that system/applications that are replacing older servers running W2K/W2K3 to now require more resources(RAM, CPU, Disk, Network )  than the previous systems/apps.

It is important to pay special attention to the memory limits, requirements and aggregate memory capacity with insight to future needs.

Limits on memory and address space vary by platform, operating system, and by whether the IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE value of the LOADED_IMAGE structure and 4-gigabyte tuning (4GT) are in use. IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE is set or cleared by using the /LARGEADDRESSAWARE linker option.

Limits on physical memory for 32-bit platforms also depend on the Physical Address Extension (PAE), which allows 32-bit Windows systems to use more than 4 GB of physical memory.

Memory and Address Space Limits

The following table specifies the limits on memory and address space for supported releases of Windows. Unless otherwise noted, the limits in this table apply to all supported releases.

Memory type Limit in 32-bit Windows Limit in 64-bit Windows
User-mode virtual address space for each 32-bit process 2 GBUp to 3 GB with IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE and 4GT 2 GB with IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE cleared (default)4 GB with IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE set
User-mode virtual address space for each 64-bit process Not applicable With IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE set (default):x64:  8 TBIntel IPF:  7 TB2 GB with IMAGE_FILE_LARGE_ADDRESS_AWARE cleared
Kernel-mode virtual address space 2 GBFrom 1 GB to a maximum of 2 GB with 4GT 8 TB
Paged pool Limited by available kernel-mode virtual address space or the PagedPoolLimit registry key value.Windows Vista:  Limited only by kernel mode virtual address space. Starting with Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 (SP1), the paged pool can also be limited by the PagedPoolLimit registry key value.Windows Home Server and Windows Server 2003:  530 MBWindows XP:  490 MBWindows 2000:  350 MB 128 GBWindows Server 2003 and Windows XP:  Up to 128 GB depending on configuration and RAM.Windows 2000:  Not applicable
Nonpaged pool Limited by available kernel-mode virtual address space, the NonPagedPoolLimit registry key value, or physical memory.Windows Vista:  Limited only by kernel mode virtual address space and physical memory. Starting with Windows Vista with SP1, the nonpaged pool can also be limited by the NonPagedPoolLimit registry key value.Windows Home Server, Windows Server 2003, and Windows XP/2000:  256 MB, or 128 MB with 4GT. 75% of RAM up to a maximum of 128 GBWindows Vista:  40% of RAM up to a maximum of 128 GB.Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP:  Up to 128 GB depending on configuration and RAM.Windows 2000:  Not applicable
System cache virtual address space (physical size limited only by physical memory) Limited by available kernel-mode virtual address space or the SystemCacheLimit registry key value.Windows Vista:  Limited only by kernel mode virtual address space. Starting with Windows Vista with SP1, system cache virtual address space can also be limited by the SystemCacheLimit registry key value.Windows Home Server, Windows Server 2003, and Windows XP/2000:  860 MB with LargeSystemCache registry key set and without 4GT; up to 448 MB with 4GT. Always 1 TB regardless of physical RAMWindows Server 2003 and Windows XP:  Up to 1 TB depending on configuration and RAM.Windows 2000:  Not applicable

 —

Physical Memory Limits: Windows Server 2008 R2

The following table specifies the limits on physical memory for Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows Server 2008 R2 is available only in 64-bit editions.

Version Limit in 64-bit Windows
Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter 2 TB
Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise 2 TB
Windows Server 2008 R2 for Itanium-Based Systems 2 TB
Windows Server 2008 R2 Foundation 8 GB
Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard 32 GB
Windows HPC Server 2008 R2 128 GB
Windows Web Server 2008 R2 32 GB

 —-

Physical Memory Limits: Windows Server 2008

The following table specifies the limits on physical memory for Windows Server 2008. Limits greater than 4 GB for 32-bit Windows assume that PAE is enabled.

Version Limit in 32-bit Windows Limit in 64-bit Windows
Windows Server 2008 Datacenter 64 GB 1 TB
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise 64 GB 1 TB
Windows Server 2008 HPC Edition Not applicable 128 GB
Windows Server 2008 Standard 4 GB 32 GB
Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-Based Systems Not applicable 2 TB
Windows Small Business Server 2008 4 GB 32 GB
Windows Web Server 2008 4 GB 32 GB

 —–

Physical Memory Limits: Windows Server 2003

The following table specifies the limits on physical memory for Windows Server 2003. Limits over 4 GB for 32-bit Windows assume that PAE is enabled.

Version Limit in 32-bit Windows Limit in 64-bit Windows
Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2 (SP2), Datacenter Edition 128 GB64 GB with 4GT IA64 2 TBX64 1 TB
Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2 (SP2), Enterprise Edition 64 GB IA64 2 TBX64 1 TB
Windows Storage Server 2003, Enterprise Edition 8 GB Not applicable
Windows Storage Server 2003 4 GB Not applicable
Windows Server 2003 R2 Datacenter EditionWindows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 (SP1), Datacenter Edition 128 GB16 GB with 4GT 1 TB
Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise EditionWindows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 (SP1), Enterprise Edition 64 GB16 GB with 4GT 1 TB
Windows Server 2003 R2 Standard EditionWindows Server 2003, Standard Edition SP1Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition SP2 4 GB 32 GB
Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition 128 GB16 GB with 4GT 512 GB
Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition 32 GB16 GB with 4GT 64 GB
Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition 4 GB 16 GB
Windows Server 2003, Web Edition 2 GB Not applicable
Windows Small Business Server 2003 4 GB Not applicable
Windows Compute Cluster Server 2003 Not applicable 32 GB